Surgery and risk
Some medical procedures are to be recommended and unavoidable when the health risks of not undergoing an operation or therapy are serious. Here is an article that goes into the details of surgical risks in an open manner.
…More than 30 million operations are performed in the U.S. annually to remove deadly cancers, repair diseased organs and replace worn-out joints. Yet going under the knife can be risky, leading to serious infections, blood clots, heart attacks and pneumonia. Those risks increase with age and for patients who are obese, smoke, abuse alcohol or have medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension.
The nonprofit Institute for Healthcare Improvement, which works with hospitals to improve the quality of care, estimates that 2.5 million to 3.5 million surgical patients each year experience unintended harm resulting from or contributed to by surgical care. While some complications are unavoidable, surgical teams often make mistakes, such as leaving a surgical sponge in a patient, or fail to take steps known to prevent complications, such as delivering antibiotics to a patient within one hour before beginning surgery, which can dramatically cut infection rates.
Complications are also costly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are more than 290,000 surgical-site infections each year, and the cost to treat them ranges from about $12,000 to nearly $35,000 per patient—or as much as $10 billion annually…
much more at Calculating the Risks of Surgery
here is a link to the Euroscore patients’ calculator which will allow you to imput personal information and calculate your risks if you were to undergo cardiac surgery: